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Monday, May 24, 2010

24 May -The day of Bulgarian alphabet,literacy and culture


In the initial period the Slavs knew two alphabets - Cirilitza and Glagolitza. In the beginning precisely the Glagolican letters are called "Cyril`s letters". In the science it is already known that Constantine - Cyril Philosopher is the creator of the Glagolitza. When in 862 in Constantinople delegates of the Moravian king Rostislav come, the brothers from Solon are already ready to educate the Slavs on their own language. Still through their common stay in the monastery Polihron in 885 they thing about the creation of graphic system which properly to reflect the speciality of the Slavonic language, which they know - the Old-Bulgarian language. Most probably the works for the creation of the Glagolitza have begun long time before the mission in Moravia and it is result from the belief of the two brothers that every nation has got right to have its own culture and own language. This position concurs a little bit with the interests of Byzantium, which wants to subdue the Slavs in religious attitude.

The Glagolitza is an original graphical system, which contains 38 letters. It reflects precisely the sound speciality of the Old - Bulgarian language. The symbols: "Ж, Ч, Ш, Ъ" and the two nasal sounds, which it contains are missing in the Latin and Greek alphabets. This shows that it is close related with the peculiarity of the Slavonic language.

In looking for the prototype of the Glagolitza it borns the one of the most interesting scientific hypothesizes - that in its base there are three elements with symbolical meaning - cross, circle /symbol of the universe/ and triangle /symbol of the Holly Trinity/. These refine interweaving of the symbols of the Christianity with the philological knowledge was not difficult for Constantine - Cyril Philosopher, the student of Lyv Mathematician and patriarch Fotiy. The peculiar "sanctity" of the Glagolitza is contained in the first of the letters - A, which is depicted as a cross.

The Glagolitza is used in Panonia, Moravia, Croatia, Russian and of course in Bulgaria. With the holly glagolican letters are written the books, which King Boris receives from the Slavonic enlighters. On it books they are written a large number of liturgical books, from which in our days have survived the Gospel of Zograff, the Sinaiski trebnik, the Gospel of Marin, the Gospel of Aseman and other. They are letters of the Glagolitza on one of the internal walls of the circle church (Rotonda) in Preslav.

The fate of the Glagolitza is to be a holly letter - this is seen from its usage in the liturgical books in Croatia and Dalmatian even in 18th century.


The Cyrilitza is created in the end of 9th century and it is related with writers of the Preslavian school for bookman. The scientists suggest that it had appeared in historical way. There are no proofs that that it is creation of Constantine - Cyril Philosopher or of Clement Ohritski. It includes 24 letters from the Greek alphabet and some more symbols which are specific for the Old-Bulgarian language. In the science the change of the Glagolitza with Cyrilitza is explained with different reasons - mostly with the new-created practice the Greek letters to be adapted to the Slavonic language, or with the will of King Simeon to bring closer the Slavonic letter with the Greek letter. It is not strike off the list the changing of the Glagolitza to have happened because of administration reasons. The Glagolitza is thought to be a alphabet for the high church letters and books. Some letters from it were with difficult construction and they weren`t written but drowned. When the Glagolitza was forgotten a little bit the bookmans used it for cryptography. It is preserved a manuscript of Cyril made by Gold for king Simeon in which they are written some letters in Glagolitza.

In a few centuries the two alphabets had been used both at the same time but with the time the Cyrilitza had changed the Glagolitza.

Most old famous written memorials on Cyrilitza are the inscription of "chergubilia Mostich" (the middle of 10th century), the inscription of Samuil from 943, the"⌠Bitolski" inscription of King Ivan Vladislav from 1015 - 1016. On Cyrilitza are written and some manuscript from the middle ages like the Savina book, "Suprasalsky sbornik" and other. From Bulgaria the Cyrilitza is moved in Russia and Serbia. The first cyrilic manuscripts in Serbia are dated in the second half of 7th century. As a church and bureau alphabet the Cyrilitza is used in Walachia and Moldova from the end of the 14th century to the middle of 19th century.

Bulgarian all-schools anthem

Go reborn people

go to light future

with letters , that new power

make your fortunes new.


The Fish, Maine, USA said...

We think that must be a hard alphabet to learn. We have 26 letters and you have a lot more. It was interesting to see your alphabet.
The Fish, Maine, USA

Anonymous said...

4 is not so much more, we have 30 letters. Try learning Bulgarian, you can have a little fun and also you can understand what do the cyrilyc signs on the weapons cases in hollywood films mean :)